What is natural stone and what are its different type?

“Natural Stone” refers to a number of products quarried from the earth, used over many thousands of years as building materials and decorative enhancements. These products include marble, granite, slate, quartz, limestone, travertine, shellstone and onyx. Natural stone is hand selected from the best, most consistent sources for durability and beauty.

Natural stone products differ in composition, color, and texture even among pieces from the same source. This is a vast benefit, lending itself to one of a kind designs and distinctive, dramatic applications.


Marble is available in solids and dramatic veined varities, and is prized for its timeless style, texture and high-gloss polish along with a rich palette of beautiful colours. Often seen as a symbol of luxury, modern technology brings beautiful marble products even to budget-conscious home-owners.


Granite is exceptional for maintainance-free elegance and durability. It’s incredible strength combined with the amazing variety of mineral-rich colours and natural patterns make it ideal for flooring, countertops and decorative interior and exterior applications.


Slate is formed by sedimentary deposits and compression,which splits naturally into beautifully textured layers. Its durability, stain-resistivity and availability in shades of brown, yellow, gray, pink, lavender and more, make it useful for flooring, cladding and landscaping.


Quartz is a rock with medium grained texture and incredible durability that sparkles with tiny quartz crystals. The mineral content produces various colours from sedate shades of whites and grays to adventurous shades of purple and pink. Its natural non-skid texture makes it perfect for indoor and outdoor flooring, including areas with heavy traffic and exposure.


Limestones are available in soft beiges and tans, either polished or honed, and are perfect for today’s casual and comfortable lifestyles. They are perfect for informal areas with low-traffic such as bathrooms and countertops.


Travertine has patterns and veining effects formed by hot spring water percolating through underground limestone. Its appearance adds rich, distinctive character to indoor and outdoor building projects. For indoor applications, it is usually filled with cement or resin to create a smooth and stain-resistant surface.

Shell Stone

Shell Stone is a sedimentary stone similar to limestone, with many small shells embedded and visible upon its surface.


Onyx is a translucent stone with a glossy surface and composes of crystalline silica, which is closes related to semi-precious stones. It is formed in caves by the slow flow of cold carbonated spring water and is available in most colours.


Schist is medium grade metamorphic rock, formed by the metamorphosis of mudstone / shale, or some types of igneous rock, to a higher degree than slate, i.e. it has been subjected to higher temperatures and pressures. The resulting foliation is coarser and more distinct than that of slate due to the higher degree of crystallisation of mica minerals (biotite, chlorite, muscovite) forming larger crystals, and is often referred toas schistosity. These larger crystals reflect light so that schist often has a high lustre, i.e. it is shiny

What is the history of Granite?

Granite is a stone formed from fire and consists of quartz, feldspar and mica. This stone was once a molten flowing mass much like lava, and as it cooled down it became very dense and hard. In fact, granite is second only to diamonds in its hardness. Because it is resistant to blistering, scratching, cracking andscorching, granite is the number one choice in natural stone for kitchen, bath, commercial & residential flooring, wall cladding & countertops.

Polished granite, with its high gloss, reflects light beautifully, adding elegance to any room or space. The high gloss finish will never wear off. Granite is easy to clean with just warm water and soft cloth. Granites are quarried throughout the world in the form of huge blocks and then reduced into slabs. These slabs are then carefully crafted and fabricated by a fabricator to the form you desire. Granites have different patterns or veining. Many stones rarely change in their tight quartz-like appearance, while others have veins that swirl and change irregularly. Small samples cannot give a good overall picture of a high-movement stone, it is this reason that we recommend to view the slab prior to the selection or fabrication.

Granites is available all over the world: India, Egypt, Spain, Brazil, Norway and Africa to name a few. Canada and the United States also produce some very lovely granite as well. Where the stone originates has a high impact on the cost of the stone because of transportation and labour. Red granites and blue granites tend to be priced a bit higher than the other colors because they are more rare.

What are the characteristics of Granite?

1. Hardness

Based on the MOH scale of one to ten with diamonds being ten ( 10 ), most granites fall within the range of seven ( 7 ) or eight. ( 8 ) It is extremely scratch resistant.. So, while a careless slip of the knife will scratch most other countertops such as solid surfaces, marble etc., it won‘t leave a mark on Granite.

2. Appearance

The physical appearance of granite is very different from that of marble. Granite has a variety of speckled colors resulting from the melded stones within it — namely, quartz, feldspar, biotite mica, and sometimes amphibole — and comes in numerous shades and tones.
Granite is a stronger and harder stone than marble is, which lends it a shiny, glossy appearance compared to marble’s dull smoothness.

3. Properties

Granite is the more durable & less porous stone, but marble is porous, meaning liquids that spill on them — especially if the stones are left untreated — can seep into the stone and cause stains.
As the more porous of the two stones, marble’s “softness” is far easier to stain and damage than granite overall. It is also specifically susceptible to heat and acidic spills in ways that granite is not. Placing hot cookware on marble may cause damage to the stone, and spilling acidic foods or liquids, like vinegar or lemon or lime juice, can dull it. However, polishes and sealants can increase marble’s resistance considerably.

4. Applications

Granite’s durable nature makes it suitable for kitchen countertops and floors, while marble is more appropriate in areas with less traffic, like bathrooms, where it can be used for vanities, tub decks, shower walls, and flooring. Marble can create a light and unique look and can be good for surfaces that will not get much use, or for people who are willing to put in the maintenance work and do not mind if their surfaces have a bit of character over time. Nowadays due to modern mining techniques, lots of granite & quartzite very similar to imported marble is available.

5. Maintenence

As both granite and marble are porous, they absorb liquids from spills. Moreover, lighter-colored stones are generally more porous than darker-colored stones. Sealants can help improve and prevent staining and etching on both marble and granite, but it is still best to wipe up problematic spills as quickly as possible. For marble surfaces, resealing is recommended twice a year, while for granite resealing once every five years should be sufficient. But how frequently either needs to be resealed depends on how heavily the surface is used.

6. Stain Removal

Whether a stain can be removed or not depends on whether any permanent and deep damage has been done to the stone. Some stains are relatively superficial and can be removed with a stain remover; others seep down into the stone’s pores and cause permanent changes to the chemical makeup of the stone.

7. Production

Large blocks of granites are mined and then cut into more manageable rectangular slabs. Granites slabs tend to be cut in large size because granite is sturdier.

What are the differences and similarities between Granite & Marble?

When choosing flooring, wall cladding & counter tops granite and marble surfaces are popular choices. They are natural stones — unlike, say, engineered quartz, silestone — Granite is more durable than marble and less prone to stains and scratching. For this reason, granite is often found in kitchens, while marble is more common in other areas, like bathrooms.

Comparison chart
Differences And Similarities
Granite Marble
Durability Durable Less Durable
Resistant to acidic foods Mostly No
May be damaged by cleaning liquids Yes, depending on ingredients. Use gentle dish soaps. Yes, depending on ingredients. Use gentle dish soaps.
Porous Very few light colour granites Yes
Stainable Not so much Yes
Usable outdoors Yes Yes, with proper sealants
Heat resistant Yes Yes
Scratch resistant Mostly No
Low maintenance Yes, but clean up spills immediately and reseal once every five years. Lighter-colored granites, which are more porous, may require additional maintenance. Less so than granite. Clean up spills immediately and reseal twice a year.
What are the differences and similarities between Quartz & Granite?
  • Granite and quartz are popular choices for countertops and flooring. Granite is a very durable natural stone with a high aesthetic value. It is heat and scratch resistant but as some colours are porous and therefore possible to stain; it requires periodic maintenance. The quartz used in countertops and flooring is a man-made combination of resins and crushed quartz. The resulting surface is non-porous, meaning it is more stain resistant than granite and requires less maintenance overall. Quartz is also very heat and scratch resistant. Most Indian granite will be lesser priced like quartz.
    Comparison chart
    Differences And Similarities
    Granite Quartz
    Durability Durable Durable but can scratch
    Resistant to acidic foods Mostly Yes
    May be damaged by cleaning liquids Yes, depending on ingredients. Use gentle dish soaps. No
    Porous Not so much No
    Stainable Not so much Yes
    Usable outdoors Yes No
    Heat resistant Yes No
    Scratch resistant Mostly Yes
    Low maintenance Yes, but clean up spills immediately and reseal once every five years. Yes
    Look & feel Very natural feel Artificial feel
Where can natural stone be used?

Natural stone can be used on nearly every surface both inside and outside the home, including floors, walkways, wall cladding, kitchen countertops, vanity tops, bathrooms, patios, fireplaces, facades and garden landscaping.

How is the stone processed?

Stone is a tactile and versatile material and it is an exciting experience to watch finished stone emerge in multifarious forms from a piece of rock. The processing of natural stone starts at the quarry where a section of solid rock is found and blocks are separated from it with as little damage to the stone as possible.

Heavy equipment are used to transport the blocks of stone from the quarry to the processing yard where they are sawed into slabs. Secondary sawing reduces the slabs into dimensional masonry. More intricate work can be carried out on profiling saws and planing and polishing machines and of course by hand. Hand working of stone, however, retains an essential place in the last stages of processing, when highly skilled masons work the more detailed stones to their finished form.

Sophisticated methods bring better results than brute force and modern technology can be applied. The aim of using latest technology programs is to make the sector more internationally oriented and to solve the problems of quarrying and processing so that the material which is of high quality and needs little care could be more widely used in buildings and other construction works. The natural surfaced blocks are cut into pieces of varying thickness and sizes, as required. The surface is then given the required textures with different finishes.

Honed or polished surfaces are achieved by grinding the cut face with successively finer grades of abrasives. Sandstone and limestone are often available in honed finish. Marble and other harder limestone can be polished. To achieve the true color and pattern of natural stone, polished surface is the most popular among different types of stone surfaces as it does not change the nature of the stone.

What are the most important benefits of using natural stones?
  • Durability.
  • Easy maintainance.
  • Unfading colours.
  • Increases property value.
  • Ideal for green and sustainable projects.
  • Thermal resistance helps keep the stone cool.
Why there is a wide range of prices for natural stones?

Natural stone prices are influenced by several factors. The factors are as follows:
1. Availability of raw material at quarry.
2. Quality and size of blocks available at quarry.
3. Transportation cost for the quarry to processing unit and processing unit to final point of sale.
4. Government taxes and duty structures.
5. Processing quality in terms of usage of consumables and machinery for final aesthetic appeal.

What are the different types of Granite surface finishes available?

Granite needs to be finished properly before putting it into use. After getting the required finish, its surface becomes impervious, looks better and its polished or granular, crystalline or texture beauty is enhanced. Most of us know only of the polished finish of granite. However, granite can be finished in a number of ways. Each type of finish provides a different type of plain or granular look to the granite surface.

1. Polished Finish: This is the most common finish of granite. This finish provides a mirror like surface to granite. The surface is reflective, full of shine and granite acquires sort of richness in colour. Polished finish granites don’t get stained easily and are very easy to clean. Granite with polished finish is most popular for kitchen counter tops, wash basin counters and risers of the staircase steps & flooring.

A glossy surface finish which is very smooth and not very porous. The shine comes from the natural reflection of the stone’s crystals. Polishing bricks and powders used during fabrication help draw out the natural reflection of the stone’s crystals to create vibrant colors and grains of natural stone.

2. Leather finish “Leathering” is the process of texturing granite or marble to appear less glossy. This process amplifies the natural characteristics of granite or marble, resulting in an exquisite surface. It is easy to clean and maintain, as well as, pleasing to the touch – a perfect balance between style and practicality. A leathered countertop is a fresh and innovative way of adding a subtle elegance to your decor.

A leathered finish is a newer style of finishing granite that has become increasingly popular in recent years. The density (or depth) of its’ texture will vary depending on the type and composition of the stone, an act of mother nature which gives each material a unique color and appearance. The leathered finish out stands the honed by giving a more sophisticated look to the stone. The leathering process closes the stone pores which helps it to become more stain resistant than the honed surface.

3. Antique finish In this type of finish, a high temperature flame is applied to the surface of granite by using a blow torch. The application of flame removes the soft parts of granite and converts the surface into rough textured finish. This happens because high temperature of the flame cracks the crystals on the surface of granite. Now, the rough surface of granite is cleaned of loose particles with a steel brush. Next operation is to smoothen the rough surface by application of brushes. are now applied to make surface more smooth and to add color and sharpness to it. There are more stone make the surface look timeless and antique as we find in old European courtyards and walkways.

The flamed surface granite itself can also be used in walkways as it becomes highly textured and non slippery. It is used on surfaces of fireplaces and even on inner surface of hearths. As the granite surface is already tempered by use of high temperature blow torch, the heat no more troubles such surfaces.

4. Honed finish Honed finish of granite is produced by applying grit material to granite surface in a similar way as is done for polished finish. The only difference is that in achieving honed finish of granite, buffing of surface is not done. The end result is a smooth surface that doesn’t reflect like polished surfaces. It is, however, ensured that there are no scratch marks on the honed finish granite. Honed finish granite is a substitute for polished finish granite when it is feared that polished granite shall become slippery when wet. Therefore, some people prefer honed finish granite instead of polished finish granite for stair steps and kitchen counter tops.

This finish is created by buffing the stone to slightly less than the highest level. The result is a smooth but dull appearance. A honed finish refers to any level that is less than polished and therefore encompasses many levels of dullness.

Honing a polished material opens up the pore making it more susceptible to staining than the same material in a polished finish Honing will “grey out” or fade the color of the stone, this is more noticeable on darker materials than on lighter materials. Provides a flat to low sheen gloss. This finish is very smooth, but often very porous. Honed stone colors are not as vibrant as a polished stone. This finish is often used for high traffic buildings.

5. Lappato finish The word Lappato has been derived from some Italian words. To produce Lappato finish, granite surface is first grinded by using an abrasive and all the polish on the granite surface is removed. Next, scratches on granite are removed by using more stone abrasives. Now, various stone brushes are applied in a way similar to leather finish. While in Leather finish granite, the process stops here, in case of lappato finish, three more abrasives are applied to achieve final finish which is a combination of matt and gloss, less reflective and has a granular worn-out but highly elegant look. The surface is non slippery and easy to clean.

The Lappato finish exalts the “time-worn” impression and timeless beauty of natural stone satisfying the most demanding performances. The lappato surface softly reflects the light to reflect its discreet structure, and finely chamfered edges give the granite a special elegance. The light polishing is carried out the same way as polished version, but the brushing is very light or just on the peaks of the tile surface to create the shiny-rough look.

6. Sandblasted In sandblasting, a high-pressure jet of siliceous sand or steel shots is applied to the area to be treated. This treatment produces a smooth abrasion, leaving the material with a slightly scratched (but not rugged) surface. The colour tones and the veins are slightly dulled.

This textured surface can vary (like leathering) based on the composition of the stone being blasted. Blasting will also “grey out” or fade the color (even more so than honing). A blasted surface is extremely porous and will be very hard to keep clean.

7. Flamed A Flamed finish is produced when an intense flame is fired at the stone, causing the surface to burst and become rough. This finish is used primarily for exteriors applications where slip-resistance is extremely important. A flamed finish cannot be applied to all stones; however, most granite and certain hard limestone are preferred.

A flamed finish is created using an extremely hot flame. The heat stresses the material causing crystals to pop out. Flaming creates a very rough texture best used for exterior purposes. A flamed finish is excellent for exterior walkways. Flaming can only be done on granites.

8. Flamed and brushed This process entails passing a blowpipe that emits a high-temperature flame over the surface to be treated. The heat acts by blowing the crystals out as they suffer thermal shock, with an effect that is particularly evident in materials composed of minerals with various degrees of expansion, (such as the vast majority of granites).
The resulting surface is rough, non-slip and generally faded in colour, thereby hiding defects and tone variations. Because of oxidation, yellow materials become orange or red.
9. Bush hammered A bush hammer is a specialized stone-working hammer with a head that resembles a meat tenderizing hammer. Because the head of the hammer is usually small (about 1-2 inches square) it takes a long time to apply this finish to a large surface area. The result leaves the surface of the stone fairly smooth with small indentations. A bush-hammered finish can be applied to nearly all stones.

Another textured finish. This is best for external use. Bush hammering will “grey out” or fade the color of the stone to an even greater extent than honing. This finish is rougher than leathering and more uniform. This finish can be done to virtually any stone.

10. Bush Hammered and Brushed A bush-hammered and brushed effect is obtained by pounding the material surface mechanically or by hand with a specific multi-pointed tool. This method creates a rugged surface full of little grazes at the impact points, giving the surface a lighter colour. The surface becomes non-slip. This technique has been replaced by flaming and pressure water finishing which is a quicker and less expensive process.

Will my stone look like the samples?

Stones are natural and unique products, therefore the samples will slightly vary in colour, pattern and grain structure. The samples are used to obtain a general look and feel of the variety of stone.

What are book-matched slabs?

Book-matched slabs are ones that are next to each other after cut from the block of stone, but are polished on opposite sides. When these slabs are laid next to each other, they create a mirror image pattern. The veins of the stone can be matched by your fabricator to create a continous pattern in large open spaces of the building.

How big are slabs of stone?

The size of slabs depend on the type of stone and also on the extraction techniques used at the quarry. On average, our slabs are 8 feet by 6 feet and go upto 10 feet by 7 feet. Once installed, large slabs enhance the beauty of the space as they provide a seamless and continous floor design.

What is the importance of thickness?

The thickness of the granite slab is directly proportional to the strength and durability of the product. The required standard in the industry globally is 2 cm with a minimum of 1.8 cm for the processed slab. Thicker slabs cost slightly more, but are easier to handle, easier to transport and easier to install thus resulting in minimum wastage of the product and a longer life.

What care is recommended for stone?

Granite & Quartzite Care Instructions

Granite is the most durable of all stones, second only to diamonds. While durable and low maintenance, however, it is not impervious to damage. Proper care ensures the longevity and beauty expected from this premium product. Granite countertops are hard and can withstand a falling can of soup, but the polished surface is a bit more delicate.

1. Avoiding scratches:
Knives will not scratch granite, although cutting on your countertops is not recommended as your knives will dull very quickly. Damage may also occur on the surface over time in the way of light cut marks and eventually an abrasive surface.
Quartz and diamonds can certainly scratch granite. Certain stoneware dishes contain rough silica sand and also pose a risk of scratching, as do some pizza-stones if they are spun around while cutting the pizza. If you use a marble cutting board make sure the rubber or plastic feet remain secure. If the marble ends up rubbing on the granite this may also pose a scratching risk.

2. Avoiding Chips:
Chips in granite are not a common occurrence. When they do happen, chips are most often caused by banging something into the edge of the countertop. Heavy pots and pans and the bottoms of large bottles do most of the damage. Take care when you handle them around your granite. If a chip does occur and you find the piece that chipped out, save it. Most of the time, it can be professionally re-attached using epoxy. Avoid Adding Weight to Countertop Edges
While granite countertops are very durable, you want to do your best to eliminate any chance of damaging them. One of the ways you can prevent damage is to avoid putting any unnecessary weight on the edges or surface of the countertops. This can include grabbing on to the countertops for balance or using the countertops to climb up and reach a high shelf, wall surface or light fixture. This added pressure and weight can cause damage to the edge of your granite countertops, which can take away from the overall beauty of the granite.

3. Hot pans:
High and low temperatures will not harm granite in any way. You can take a pan off the stove or a dish out of the oven and set it directly on your countertop without damage. If you have a seam in your countertop it is best to avoid setting hot materials on top of it. The epoxy in the seam is heat resistant, but can be melted if exposed to heat for an extended period. Please be careful not to set hot pans near flammable materials or near under mounted composite sinks.

4. Bath and Other Wet Areas: In the bath or other wet areas, soap scum can be minimized by using a squeegee after each use. To remove soap scum, use a non-acidic soap scum remover.

5. Avoid Harsh Cleaning Products: Just like foods and beverages that contain high levels of acid, some common household cleaners also have high levels of acid and other chemicals. Products of this nature have the potential to damage your new granite countertop. If you must use anything other than water to help clean up a spill, use something mild like dish soap to avoid damaging the granite.

6. Sealing the Granite: It is suggested that a penetrating sealant be applied once a year. Avoid using a stone sealer that will not penetrate the stone, as it will create a cloudy surface that will have to be removed by stripping the entire countertop using harsh solvents. Remember, the glossy shine isn’t caused by a coating on the surface, but by expert polishing using diamond polishing tools.

What are do's and dont's for stone?

• DO dust surfaces frequently with a soft, clean cloth.
• DO “blot” up spills immediately, before they penetrate the surface.
• DO clean surfaces with a few drops of pH balanced dishwashing liquid and warm water. Rinse after washing with the soap solution and dry completely with a soft, clean cloth to avoid streaks. (Too much soap
may also leave a film and cause streaks)
• DO wipe clean any countertops that come into contact with cooking oil. While stains are rare, they are caused most frequently by cooking oil.
• DO remove a stain on granite, with a mixture (paste) of one cup of flour, 1-2 tablespoons of pH balanced dishwashing liquid (or hydrogen peroxide for oil based stains) with water to make a fairly thick paste (just so it doesn’t run), like peanut butter. If it’s too thick it will take a long time to dry.
• Clean the stained area with distilled water and pH dishwashing liquid.
Remember to “blot” rather than wipe. Then rinse, but don’t dry.
• Apply the paste to the stained area with a plastic spatula, overlapping the stain by at least 1/4” and
avoiding air pockets.
• Cover the paste with plastic wrap and tape around the edges of the plastic using painters tape (don’t use regular masking tape, it’s too sticky). Let it sit for 24 hours or until thoroughly dry.
• Remove the plastic cover and check to see if the paste has dried. If it has not, allow it to sit uncovered until thoroughly dry. Once it is dry, remove the paste by scraping with a wooden /plastic
spatula, or debit card, and rinse the area with distilled water and dry with a soft cloth.
• Examine the stain. If it still remains, but is somewhat lighter, re-process up to five more times.
• DO scrape off a hard substance stuck to the surface, and lime build up, by gently scraping with a hard and thin object like a debit card or new single sided razor blade.

• DO NOT leave acidic liquids (vinegar, lemon juice, orange juice, lime juice, soft drinks and wine) on its surface for long, as they can etch the surface and dull the finish. Polished granite counter-tops are rather delicate and must be treated with more care.
• DO NOT use cleaners that contain bleach, ammonia, acid or alkaline such as bathroom cleaners, grout cleaners, abrasive cleaners (liquid or powder), lime removers, or tub and tile cleaners.
• DO NOT use scouring powders or creams; these products contain abrasives that may scratch the surface.
• DO NOT store bottles of cooking oil directly on your granite counter top.
• DO NOT store metal pots and pans on your countertops, as rust can and will stain the granite. The sealer is not a waterproofing agent. If your granite darkens when it is wet do not be alarmed. It will return to its original color when the water evaporates.
• DO NOT slide appliances, utensils or pots and pans on the surface of the granite, as they may scratch the polished surface.
• DO NOT apply a stone sealer that will not penetrate granite, as these harsh solvents are hard to remove and may need to be removed professionally.